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        您当前所在的位置:首页 > 艺术 > 建筑 > 世界七大建筑难度奇迹(六):伦敦下水道

        世界七大建筑难度奇迹(六):伦敦下水道

        来源:本站 | 发表日期:2018-10-22 | 点击数: 522 次

        导读:结构大师塞西尔·巴尔蒙德被誉为“世界上最伟大的建筑师”,长期专注于创新结构建筑设计工作的他,对于评价世界上大大小小难易不同的建筑物,大概是最有发言权的人之一了。以下就是由巴尔蒙德先生根据建筑难度而评选出的世界七大建筑奇迹,一起来了解吧。

        中国风水大师



            伦敦如今使用的下水道系统建于150多年前。有趣的是,当初建造这条下水道的原因竟然是为了防止疾病传播。1848年的伦敦是当时世界上最大、人口最多的城市,人口达到200万。但是,150多年前的伦敦污染严重,垃圾遍地,城市里到处是粪便的气息,臭气熏天。整条泰晤士河都在发酵,流淌着褐色的液体。这一年伦敦爆发霍乱,人员大量死亡。

            霍乱疫情结束时,伦敦死于霍乱的人数超过14000人,但是,霍乱病因依然不太清楚。当时的伦敦,坟场永远不够用,有些地方,死人只能曝尸街头。停尸房里的尸体往往也要存放好几个星期才能处理。有些家庭尸体无法处理,只好暂时放在家中,为了避免尸体的气味,伦敦人当时流行用洋葱包裹尸体来掩盖气味。

            1856年,工程师巴瑟杰建议将所有的污水直接引到泰晤士河口,全部排入大海。伦敦地下排水系统改造工程1859年正式动工,1865年完工,实际长度达到2000公里。不少人担心地下被挖空的伦敦会不会坍塌,为了解决这个问题,工程部门特地研制了新型高强度水泥,用这种水泥制造了3.8亿块混凝土砖,构成了坚固的下水道。

            巴瑟杰在设计中首次将雨水管道和污水管道分离,污水管道的出口改成了泰晤士河的入海口,远离城市。他建起了6个主要的截流管,总长达160公里,此外,下水管道主干总长720公里,支干长达21000公里。由于将污水与地下水隔开,伦敦下水道改造意外地解决了导致霍乱的水源问题。从此以后,伦敦再也没有发生过霍乱。

            巴尔蒙德认为,当19世纪50年代污水的问题导致了城市臭气冲天,霍乱流行,约瑟夫爵士提议在地下建造83英里(约133公里)的下水道、1100英里(约1770公里)的街道下水道和13000英里(约20921公里)的小型下水道,是一件相当有难度的创举。同时他还做了一件神话般的事情:他决定无论计算出的污水流量是多少,他都要将其翻倍,以便应付将来不时之需。设想一下,如果当时没有他的明智之举,也许到了1950年,伦敦还会面临同样问题。


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