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        中国历史上十大谋士之四:李斯

        来源:本站 | 发表日期:2018-10-26 | 点击数: 577 次

        导读:李斯(约前280年-前208年),秦朝丞相,河南驻马店上蔡县人,中国历史上著名的政治家、文学家和书法家,千古一相。

        风水大师李计忠


            李斯生于战国末年,年轻时做过掌管文书的小吏。李斯想干出一番事业来,到齐国求学,拜荀卿为师。李斯学完之后,经过对各国情况的分析和比较,他认为楚王无所作为,各国也在走下坡路,决定到秦国去。


            李斯到了秦国以后,很快就得到秦相吕不韦的器重,当上了秦国的小官,后得到了秦王的赏识,因而被提拔为长吏。李斯劝秦王派人持金玉去各国收买、贿赂,离间六国的君臣,果然也收到了效果,他又被封为客卿。


             一、富有远见的杰出政治家和军事战略家


            一是上《谏逐客书》,为秦留住了大量人才。李斯写了他那篇传世名作《谏逐客书》:“……今乃弃黔首以资敌国,却宾客以业诸侯,使天下之士退而不敢向西,裹足不入秦,此所谓借寇兵而赍盗粮者也。”一语中矢,道出逐客之误,等于是把武器借给了敌寇,把粮食送给了盗贼,减少自己的人民来增加敌人的力量。逢此历史转折的关健,其蕴含的深刻政治意义,为秦以后统一六国起到了具有决定性的主导作用。


            二是在军事战略上,李斯进一步推动并深化了吕不韦等人的“武力统一论”。他早在吕不韦舍下“任以为郎”时,就向秦王阐明了自己的战略主张:“……夫以秦之强,大王之贤,由灶上骚除,足以灭诸侯,成帝业,为天下一统,此万世之一时也。今怠而不就,诸侯复强,相聚约从,虽有黄帝之贤,不能并也。”遂又向秦王献策“阴遣谋士赍持金玉以游说诸侯。诸侯名士可下以财者,厚遗结之;不肯者,利剑刺之。离其君臣之计,秦王乃使其良将随其后。”加剧了各国的内部矛盾,为加速统一步伐的进程做了良好的铺垫。


            在统一策略上,著名的军事战略家尉缭曾向秦王提出过:“毋爱财物,赂其豪臣,以乱其谋,不过亡三十万金,则诸侯可尽”的计策,并被秦王采纳。需要说明的是,这一策略虽为尉缭所出,秦王采用,实则“李斯方主持国政,一切决大疑、辨大难,皆须斯从中参赞擘划,方能成为国事,因此……以明兹事之实行,全系斯用事之力。”至于顿弱的“王资臣万金而游,听之韩魏,入其社稷之臣于秦,即韩、魏从,韩、魏从,而天下可图也”云云(《战国策。秦策四》),也与李斯的支持有着莫大关系。


            三是在秦王朝建立了封建的中央集权之后,为使帝国版图得以拓宽“外攘四夷,斯皆有力焉”。在他的出谋划策下,历三载而定百越。但对于秦始皇“务战不休,欲攻匈奴”的军事方针,李斯出于“匈奴无城郭之居,委积之守,迁徙鸟举,难得而制也”的实际考虑,是否认“轻兵深入”的。实事证明,李斯的“备胡利越”之策,在当时是务实之举。其后,在李斯的积极匡扶下,大秦帝国达到了中国历史上绝无前例的版图。疆域之广袤,东至东海,西到陇西,北至长城,南至南海,人口达两千余万。不仅是我国第一个统一的多民族的封建国家,在当时,也是罕见的世界大国。


            二、创立帝业体制,全谋帝业发展


            秦统一后,先是在李斯等人的建议下,奉王为“泰皇”、命为“制”、令为“诏”、天子自称“朕”(秦始皇改“泰皇”为皇帝)确定了帝制。为了秦王朝的万世基业,李斯又以强烈的历史使命感,高瞻远瞩,驳斥了以王绾为首诸大臣的师古“分封”之说。认为“诸侯初破,燕、齐、荆地远,不为置王,毋以填之,请立诸子”的看法是荒谬的。一针见血的指出:“周文、武所封子弟同姓甚众,然后属相远,相攻击如仇雠,诸侯更相诛伐……置诸侯不便。”由始废除分封,确立了“使秦无尺土之封不立子弟为王,功臣为诸侯者”的郡县制。随后,为全面巩固帝业体制,保障社会稳定“使后无战攻之患”,李斯建议“收天下兵,聚之咸阳,销以为钟鐻,金人十二,重各千石,置于宫中。”并全力协助秦始皇“勤劳本事,上农除末,黔首是富;”进一步推行了“百姓当家则力农工”的重农政策。以新兴的“土地私有制”,改革了奴隶社会的旧礼制,在当时极大的促进了农业生产和农业发展。


            限于战国之乱,秦统伊始,钱币异常混乱。为了巩固政权,李斯奏请秦始皇废除诸币。规定币分二等:黄金以“溢”为名,上币;铜钱质如周钱,文曰半两,重如其文,为下币。诸如其它“珠、玉、龟、贝、银、锡”之旧币,仅为“器饰宝藏”所用,不得为币。经过货币的统一和流通,有力增强了各地的经济联系,对全国各民族的融合起了很大的纽带和桥梁作用。为了在全国建立统一的赋税标准,便于官吏的俸禄制度管理,更有效的防禁官场上的寻私舞弊,李斯拟议并主持了度量衡的统一完善工作。取秦为准,余者尽废。紧接着李斯还建议秦始皇兴修水利,车涂同轨,在全国范围内修筑起了“东穷燕、齐,南极吴、楚,江湖之上,濒海之观毕至。道广五十步,三丈而树,厚筑其外,隐以金椎,树以青松”(《汉书。贾山传》)的大规模驰道工程。被后人认为“是现代高速公路的先驱,是中国交通史上的伟大创举。”


            三、彪炳千古的“李斯文化”


            一是《谏逐客书》的文学价值及社会意义。李斯的《谏逐客书》,无论是思想性还是艺术性,都有着较高的文学价值和借鉴意义。时至今日,仍脍炙人口,广为传诵。“泰山不让土壤,故能成其大;江海不择细流,故能就其深”的“惜用人才论”,既为哲理,又是真理。对后世社会如何全方位的引入、留住和促进人才,都有着深刻的涵盖性。


            二、书同文字,举创小篆的先河人物。秦始皇初兼天下,和贷币、度量衡一样,当时以大篆为范畴的文字亦甚繁乱。李斯倡议,首创并主持的文字统一工作,史称“书同文字”,故小篆又名“秦篆”。小篆的问世,意义极为深远。它以一种简单化、定型化、省略和改换偏旁的新格局,为“方块字”的形成奠定基础。


            四、功逾其过,“千古一相”永耀青史


            应当承认,在人类发展史上,任何一个伟大的人物,都或多或少存在着所处时代的历史局限。说起李斯之过,不外有四:一、妒嫉同窗,陷杀韩非;二、惑主焚书,首导浩劫;三、贪居爵禄,废嫡立庶;四、邀媚取宠,上《论督责书》。针对其一,凡阅史人皆知,韩非入秦“实为弱秦”,“因其与李斯、姚贾之计划,针锋相对,故斯、贾不得已而共请杀之。此事关系秦之统一事业,至为巨大,非寻常嫉贤害能者可比。其二之焚书,也重在禁,而不在焚,是在“五帝不相复,三代不相袭”的前提下,才对儒家”复古分封“采取的打击。第三点沙丘之变,一定程度上是因李斯私欲之故,算是他一生中最大的败笔和历史污点。至于《论督责书》斥其“阿意求容”之说,对李斯未免苟求过甚。


            【后世评价】

            秦始皇与李斯一为雄才大略,一为运筹帷幄,故一帝一相,均为“千古第一”之并驱。可以毫不夸张的说,若无李斯相秦,秦纵然六合天下,至少已不是我们今天所看到的“奇异而庞大的帝国了”,不要说“百代都行奉政治了,”甚至很有可能战国兵燹仍要持续几十年、乃至上百年之久。纵观古今华夏,与历代人杰相比,李斯的历史地位无疑是举足轻重的。他在生逢之世所做出的历史贡献,也是极其卓越并顺应历史潮流的。客观而全面的去评价,他都无愧于是一位杰出的政治家、军事战略家、文学家和书法大家。在历史的长河里,无论怎样大浪淘沙,沧海桑田,深信“千古一相”四个字,将会永远镌刻在历史的深处;随大江滚滚,奔腾不息。

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