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        中国十大谋士之六:诸葛亮

        来源:本站 | 发表日期:2018-10-30 | 点击数: 498 次

        导读:诸葛亮(181-234),字孔明、号卧龙(也作伏龙),汉族,徐州琅琊阳都(今山东临沂市沂南县)人,三国时期蜀汉丞相、杰出的政治家、军事家、散文家、书法家。

        著名风水大师



            诸葛亮青年时耕读于南阳郡,地方上称其卧龙、伏龙。后受刘备三顾茅庐邀请出仕,促成孙刘联盟和建立蜀汉政权起到了决定性的作用。刘备死后,诸葛亮受封爵位武乡侯,辅佐刘禅,成为蜀汉政治、军事上的实际领导者。先后五次率军北伐曹魏,在第五次北伐时病逝于五丈原,追谥为忠武侯。后世常尊称诸葛亮为武侯、诸葛武侯。诸葛亮为匡扶蜀汉政权,呕心沥血,鞠躬尽瘁,死而后已,是中国传统文化里忠臣与智者之代表。其散文代表作有《出师表》、《诫子书》等。曾发明木牛流马、孔明灯等,并改造连弩,叫做诸葛连弩,可一弩十矢俱发。于234年在五丈原(今宝鸡岐山境内)逝世。诸葛亮在后世受到极大尊崇,成为后世忠臣楷模,智慧化身。成都、宝鸡、汉中、南阳等地有武侯祠,杜甫作《蜀相》赞诸葛亮。


            诸葛亮之忠诚,备受后世推崇。在刘备托孤后,诸葛亮对后主刘禅尽心尽力,凡事亲力亲为,忧国忘家,于《出师表》中表明心迹,直至最后自己食少事烦,病死军中。在割据政权中,诸葛亮总揽朝政十余年,既不敛财,也不营谋私利或名位,以兴复汉室为任。另一位托孤重臣李严 (蜀汉)曾写信给诸葛亮,希望他受赐九锡,但是诸葛亮拒绝,表示不能为汉室收复中原就不算有功。

            

            诸葛亮曾上表指出自己没有多余财产,只有800株桑树15顷土地,而自己穿的都是朝廷赐封,就算儿子都是自给自足,自己没有一点多余的财产。果然,诸葛亮直至死时也是如此,甚至在临死前,也吩咐了他下葬时只需要挖洞一个,棺木能够放进去便足够,自己则穿着平常的服装即可,不须要其他配葬物。诸葛亮死后30年,他的长子诸葛瞻和长孙诸葛尚一起在蜀汉保卫战中战死沙场。


            诸葛亮在政治上有更为突出的成绩,除了在《隆中对》提出了刘备政权长期战略外交规划外,早期经常为刘备足食足兵。等到他开始独掌蜀汉军政大权以后,则以法为根本,到后来在朝内作八务、七戒、六恐及五惧训诫各臣,而朝外亦民风朴实,赏罚分明,突出法制的作用,在中国古代极为罕见。他鼓励其他朝臣以集思广益的态度进谏。他又敢于接受问责、承认错误,在第一次北伐时,因为误用与他最为亲密的马谡而失败,他后来上表自责,自贬降官,及对马谡进行处分。《三国志》作者陈寿的父亲因为马谡兵败,连坐,被髡(髡刑:剃发),但是他对诸葛亮的评价却是“尽忠益时者虽仇必赏,犯法怠慢者虽亲必罚”。


            诸葛亮在技术发明上亦有灵巧的表现,如改良连。诸葛亮亦推演了兵法,作八阵图,直至唐代将领李靖仍然十分推崇。


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