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        《莎菲女士的日记》:衍变中的“历史中间物”

        来源:网络 | 发表日期:2018-12-24 | 点击数: 381 次

        导读:丁玲早期小说代表作《莎菲女士的日记》,可以印证作家的审美个性和艺术探索。这是一部日记体的小说,它在《小说月报》1928年19卷2号上发表后,主人公莎菲这个“满带着‘五四’以来时代的烙印”、“心灵上负着时代苦闷的创伤的青年女性叛逆的绝叫者”,便引起了当时文坛极大的震惊,作家也由此获得了更大的声誉。

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        丁玲在现代文学史中是有独特贡献的女作家,其小说创作的特色鲜明而有个性。丁玲善于写出人物深邃的内心世界,长于透视性格多重性复杂性的特点,重视表现人物情感和讲求写作笔触细腻,这在女性作家中更显其艺术的独特。莎菲、贞贞、陆萍等形象,在现代小说人物画廊里,很少有丁玲那样在刻画时将自己人生的体验,尤其是女性生活的感受,深深融合在她们身上的;尤其那来自心灵的振荡、灵魂搏斗的对于历史变革感受深切的描写,更凸现了其现实主义创作的真实性。




        丁玲早期小说代表作《莎菲女士的日记》,可以印证作家的审美个性和艺术探索。这是一部日记体的小说,它在《小说月报》1928年19卷2号上发表后,主人公莎菲这个“满带着‘五四’以来时代的烙印”、“心灵上负着时代苦闷的创伤的青年女性叛逆的绝叫者”,便引起了当时文坛极大的震惊,作家也由此获得了更大的声誉。


        作者成功地刻画了一个叛逆的、苦闷的、彷徨的知识女性形象。这也正是五四落潮以后知识女性精神追求和心灵颤动的生命真实在莎菲身上的集中体现。




        莎菲充满矛盾的性格,在她与懦弱的苇弟、表里不一的凌吉士失败的爱情选择中得到充分揭示。莎菲从封建家庭出走,崇尚个性的真正解放,但总是求爱失爱,在无乐可寻中抱着“及时行乐”的幻想。她鄙视社会的隔膜、欺骗,以个人的孤独的灵魂进行倔强反抗。不甘幻灭的内心骚动,不满世俗的放纵,反抗充满着病态,而敏感、多疑、怪癖和狷傲,则构成其性格的基本特征。丁玲以这个形象生动折射出时代剪影,即五四的个性解放随着历史的进步只剩下了凄厉的哀伤和疲惫。作家高度浓缩了一个过渡时代苦闷青年的精神面貌,并且以女性独有的细腻、率真的心理描写,深入到人物内心复杂而丰富的情感世界。


        莎菲作为摩登女子,有着现代都市颓废文明的特征:享乐主义与道德虚无主义共同造成的生命意识,使她们成为“胃的奴隶”与“色的奴隶”,成为放纵自我的情欲追逐者。莎菲“还不是完全资本主义化的”,她是二者的混合物,既厌恶颓废的色欲又渴望放纵它。莎菲的“苦闷”隐喻启蒙主义与颓废主义的文明冲突,或者说,表达了启蒙主义遭到颓废文明挑战与侵袭的历史痛苦。这样,莎菲作为一个“Modern Girl”形象的审美意义,就不是反抗传统的“五四”时代意义的现代女性,也非新感觉派作家与茅盾小说中的新女性,而是一个启蒙文明向颓废文明衍变中的“历史中间物”,既时髦又守旧的行为与心理造就了她的形象特征与审美价值。


        丁玲《莎菲女士的日记》翻开了五四以来郁达夫式的感伤抒情小说新的一页 ,从而也奠定了作家全部创作风格和艺术个性的基调。

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