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        中国画绘画技法之“没骨画法”

        来源:网络 | 发表日期:2019-01-09 | 点击数: 357 次

        导读:在中国画绘画技法中,用墨线勾出轮廓线称为骨法,所谓的“骨”指的就是墨线;不用墨笔勾出轮廓线,而是完全用墨或色渲染成,称之为没骨法。用没骨法创作的画作就称为没骨画,也称为无骨画。古代山水、花鸟画都有用没骨技法进行绘画的,我们可称之为没骨山水画、没骨花鸟画。

        风水大师李计忠


        在中国画绘画技法中,用墨线勾出轮廓线称为骨法,所谓的“骨”指的就是墨线;不用墨笔勾出轮廓线,而是完全用墨或色渲染成,称之为没骨法。用没骨法创作的画作就称为没骨画,也称为无骨画。古代山水、花鸟画都有用没骨技法进行绘画的,我们可称之为没骨山水画、没骨花鸟画。




        没骨画法作为不勾墨线,直接以色彩塑造物像的画法,从技法上看,有渲染、点染两种。没骨渲染是指不勾轮廓线或先用炭条、铅笔、淡墨勾出轮廓线,然后用色将其覆盖,或着色后再将铅笔、炭条的痕迹擦掉,最终让人看不到墨线,运用层染或混染法,通过多次着色来塑造物象的一种绘画手法




        没骨点染是指先在笔上调好墨或色的浓淡,然后一笔或几笔点出物象的一种绘画手法。没骨点染有粗细之分,细致的在工笔花鸟中常用来表现草虫、小花、小草和枝梗等,较粗的则是兼工带写。介于写意和工笔之间的一种画法,既可以画在生宣纸上,也可以画在熟宣纸上。




        从历代关于没骨画的论述及流传的作品来看,没骨画最根本的特点是“直以彩色图之”,就是不用墨线勾勒,直接用色点、色线和色彩的晕染去塑造画面形象。没骨画技法是中国画的三大技法体系之一。


        最为原始的没骨画法,应该是在新石器时代就已经存在了。时至南北朝时,张僧繇在借鉴印度绘画技巧的同时,进一步发展了中国画的用色理念和用色技法,为没骨画技法的成熟奠定了坚实的基础。


        因为我们知道,没骨画技法的成熟,需要解决的几个问题:首先,必须具有相当多的颜料种类,以用来表现色彩、色阶乃至光照的不同,如果只有一两种色彩,只能是原始绘画;其次,对于颜料的运用已经相当成熟,也就是已经基本学会了什么情况下用什么颜色去表现;最后,对于光色的理解一定要突破轮廓线的限制。




        原始绘画中,人们最先认识到也是印象最深刻的,是通过外轮廓线的描绘来表现物象。如果不能突破这一认识,就无法直接用色彩去表现物象。王翚在题恽寿平的一幅牡丹图时说:“北宋徐崇嗣创制没骨花,远宗僧繇传染之妙,一变黄荃勾勒之工,盖不用笔墨,全以色彩染成,阴阳向背,曲尽其态,超乎法外,合于自然,写生之极致也。南田子拟议神明,真能得造化之意。”没骨山水技法成熟于唐代的杨升,而没骨花鸟画则成熟于宋代的黄筌,徐熙只是“效诸黄之格”而已。


        所谓没骨画,按《梦溪笔谈》中的定义是“不用笔墨,直以彩色图之”。但是,这种没骨,并不表明没骨画的画面,一定会给人一种软弱无力的感觉。因为没骨画法,通过色彩的造型,比如用色彩直接画枝干,点染花瓣、叶子,也可以表现画家的笔力和物象的自然结构、光色影响等。而且,由于没骨画法直接使用色彩造型,直接用色彩描绘物象的光感、色感和质感,比之于用墨线造型的手法,更接近于客观真实,更富有真实感,更适用于写实绘画。




        那么,为什么没骨画技法不如水墨画技法和工笔重彩画技法那样受国人的重视呢?其原因是受到了唐宋以来绘画理论和审美观的影响。根据谢赫“气韵生动、骨法用笔、应物象形、随类赋彩、经营位置、传移模写”六法的要求,用笔是次要的,而且要有“骨法”。在谢赫看来,“没骨”也即意味着没了“笔”的表现力。自谢赫“六法论”提出以后,对用笔的要求影响了中国绘画一千多年。唐代张彦远更是把骨法用笔提到至高位置:“夫象物必在于形式,形式须全其骨气,骨气、形式,皆本于立意而归乎用笔”。这一品评标准不可避免地影响到后来没骨画的创作和市场。在这种对笔墨极力追捧的审美环境下,“不用笔墨,直以彩色图之”的没骨画受到压抑和贬斥是不足为怪的。




        在中国画发展初期,是多种技法并行发展而且相互融合的,只是后来由于历史和文人审美取向等原因,中国画在创作中逐步失去一些很有意义的形式语言。直至明末,西方绘画他们的绘画就是“直以色彩图之”的传入中国后,这种情况才略有改变。从那时起,一部分中国画家才认识到,原来,西方绘画中的很多技法,我们的前辈早已经应用过。目前中国画又进入了创作环境和审美标准的重大转变时期,没骨画既然是中国画的一部分,又有中西绘画交融的有利条件,应该高举“注重光色,融合中西”的旗帜,让这个古老的画种焕发青春。

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