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        中国山水画: 运笔六法论

        来源:网络 | 发表日期:2019-03-06 | 点击数: 343 次

        导读:绘画执笔大体同于书法,要掌握指实、掌虚、腕平、五指齐力的要领,但较之书法用笔更为灵活。书法执笔一般要求竖掌,绘画执笔则可横卧,可略高一些,这样与腕、肘、肩、身相互配合,运笔方能既灵活而又得力。

        风水大师李计忠

        散点透视


        透视,是绘画术语。画家在作画的时候,把客观物象在平面上正确地表现出来,使它们具有立体感和远近空间感,这种方法叫透视法。困为透视现象是近大远小的,所以也称为“远近法”。西洋画一般是采用“焦点透视”,它就象照相一样,观察者固定在一个立足点上,把能摄入镜头的物象如实地照下来,因为受空间的限制,视域以外的东西就不能摄入了。中国画的透视法就不同了,画家观察点不是固定在一个地方,也不受下定视域的限制,而是根据需要,移动着立足点进行观察,凡各个不同立足点上所看到的东西。都可组织进自己的画面上来。这种透视方法,叫做“散点透视”,也叫“移动视点”。中国山水画能够表现“飓尺千里”的辽阔境界,正是运用这种独特的透视法的结果。


        中国山水画透视法的形成,有着悠久的历史。早在南北朝时代,宗炳的《画山水序》中就说:“去之稍阔,则其见弥小。今张绢素以远映,则昆阆(昆仑山)之形,可围千方寸之内;竖画三寸,当千切之高;横墨数尺,体百里之迥。”他说的是用一块透明的“绢素”,把辽阔的景物移置其中,可发现近大远小的现象。这是在绘画史上对透视原理的最早论述。到了唐代,王维所撰《山水论》中,提出处理山水画中透视关系的要诀是:“丈山尺树,寸马分人,远人无目,远树无枝,远山无石,隐隐,”眉(黛色),远水无波,高与云齐。”可见当时山水画家都是重视透视规律的。到了宋代,中国山水画透视法已形成了完整的体系。




        六远法


        宋代郭熙著《林泉高致》,其中提出“高远”、“深远”、“平远”的“三远”透视法。后来韩拙在《山水纯全集》中,又补充了“阔远”、“迷远”、与“幽远”,共称“六远”。这是山水画透视法的重大发展,现分述如下:


        1.高远。郭熙说:“自山下而仰山巅,谓之高远”。这是自下向上看的仰视法,即所谓“虫视”透视。宋。范宽的《溪山行旅图》是典型的高远法。画面上一座巍崖,雄峙正中,宛如一个顶天立地的巨人;气势逼人。“高远之势突兀”,这种透视法宜于表现高大雄伟、气势磅磷的景物,使人油然而生“高山仰止”之情。


        2.深远。郭熙称“自山前而窥山后,谓之深远”这是站在山前或山上远眺,并要移动机点,绕过前面近山,才能看见山后无穷无尽的景色。落到画面上,就出现山重水复,“使人望之莫穷其际,不知其为几千万重”的艺术效果。这种方法,宜于表现幽深的意境。元代黄公望的《九峰雪雾图》即为深远法。图中曲曲折折的溪涧,不知有多深多远;重重叠叠的山峰,不知有几千万重,使人有“江山无尽”的感觉。



        3.平远。郭熙说:“自近山而望远山,谓之平远。”这是在“平视”中所得的远近关系。“平远”所看到的对象,一般不甚高,多属于山林获泽,远浦遥岑之类,在我们的生活中最为常见。元代倪云林是描绘平远山水的圣手,他的画多取材于大湖一带的肢陀汀淆,意境显得悠闲宁静、坦荡开阔。


        4.迷远。韩拙说:“有烟雾瞑漠,野水隔而仿佛不见者,渭之迷远。”可见,“烟雾”与“野水”是,“迷远”的条件,而“不见”则是“迷远”的特点。王维诗日:“江流天地外,山色有无中”,他在《山水诀》中又说:“远景烟笼,”“深岩云锁”都说的是“迷远”的景色。“迷远”,可以产生空檬辽阔、神秘迷离的艺术境界,明代文征明的《风雨图》只有船只是清楚的,四周迷蒙、恍愧,不知这片浩森的江水有多少辽阔。清代王原祁《松溪山馆图》,画出了烟笼雾绕、莫测其深远的境界。“迷远”与“深,远”的区别在于:前者远而不见,后者远而可见。


        5.阔远。韩拙认为“有近岸广水,旷阔遥山者,谓之阔远。”另一种版本的这句话说得更具体,它是“山根岸边,水波亘望而遥,谓之阔远”,可见这种透视的内容是:近景是岸,中景是宽阔的水,远景是山。这种透视法与郭熙的“平远”没多少差别。


        6.幽远。韩拙的解释是“景色至绝,而微茫缥渺者”,这种透视似可以包括在他提出的“迷远”之中,没有多大特色。


        中国画的设色特点


        中国画是重视设色的,所以古代把图画叫做“丹青”。丹是朱砂,青是蓝靛,都是绘画上常用的颜色。《晋书》说顾恺之“尤善丹青,图写特妙。”杜甫赠画马名家曹霸的诗,题名为《丹青引》,可见“丹青”之名已为人们习用。设色是古代画家必须掌握的基本技法,所以谢赫把“随类赋彩”列为“六法”之一。宋代以前的山水画对设色都是十分讲究的,文人画兴起后,提倡“意足不求颜色似”。但在今天,淡彩色已不能反映人们丰富的生活和精神面貌了,山水画需要在继承传统的设色经验的基础上,吸收新的养料,创出一条新路来。



        用色特点:


        一是中国画着色多从物象固有的本色出发,而不计较光的影响和变化。虽然有时着色也有浓、淡、干、湿之别,但目的不是表现物体的光感而是为了破除板滞,以求得颜色本身有丰富的变化,产生生动的韵味。所以中国画的用色相对来说比较单纯,具有清新明快的特点。


        二是喜用对比强烈的原色。中国人习惯以红、黄、蓝、白、黑为“五原色”,其中以黑与白为主色,“黑白分明”对比强烈。唐、宋的大青绿山水,用大片的石绿、石青画成,用泥金勾勒轮廓,涂染天和水,山间云雾则用白粉堆染,画秋景还用朱砂点出一丛丛丹枫,青山、白云、红树,形成强烈的对比,金碧辉煌,鲜艳夺目,画面极有感染力。


        三中国画设色常具有画家的主观色彩,甚至抛弃描绘对象本身的颜色。比如竹子,本来是绿色的,而传统的黑竹,却是黑色。苏东坡甚至用朱砂画竹,称为朱竹。人们欣赏他的朱竹,只觉得他画的竹子风致潇洒,极有艺术魅力,谁还去计较它的色彩是黑是红呢?这种设色完全是画家感情的倾泻,具有强烈的感染力。


        四是水和天一般不着色,借用纸的空白来表现。古人所谓“以素为云,借地为雪”,说是这种表现方法。虽然不画云和水,却能表现云水的存在。


        中国画的运笔技巧


        中国绘画的最显著特点,是以墨线为基础。中国画家不仅用它来表现一切物象的轮廓、明暗、质感,而且还用它来揭示物象的内在精神和画家的思想感情。因此中国画的线条具有一定的独立的美学价值。清代大画家石涛,提出“一画论”的观点,他说:“一画者,众有之本,万象之根。”中国画家就是运用一管柔毫,通过种种不同性质的墨线,为大千世界传神写照的。所以,如何用笔画线,就成了能否画好中国画的首要问题。


        南齐谢赫在著名的《六法论》中,把“骨法用笔”放在第二位。唐代张彦远在《历代名画记》中说:“夫象物必在于形似,形似须全其骨气,骨气形似,皆本于立意而归乎用笔。”可见用笔是历来为画家所重视的,是中国画技法中基础的基础。


        绘画执笔大体同于书法,要掌握指实、掌虚、腕平、五指齐力的要领,但较之书法用笔更为灵活。书法执笔一般要求竖掌,绘画执笔则可横卧,可略高一些,这样与腕、肘、肩、身相互配合,运笔方能既灵活而又得力。


        山水画运笔有中锋、侧锋、藏锋、露锋、逆锋、顺锋等方式。中锋运笔,笔管垂直,行笔时锋尖处于墨线中心;用中锋画出的线条挺劲爽利,多用于勾勒物体的轮廓。侧锋运笔,手掌向左偏倒,锋尖侧向左边;由于侧锋是使用笔毫的侧部,故画出的笔线粗壮而毛辣,此法多用于山石的皴擦。藏锋运笔,笔锋要藏而不露,横行“无往不复”,竖行“无垂不缩”,古人称之为“一波三折”;藏锋画出的线条沉着含蓄,力透纸背,常用来画屋宇、舟、桥的轮廓,也用于山石的勾勒,树干的双勾。露锋则使点画的锋芒外露,显得挺秀劲健,画竹叶、柳条便是便是露锋运笔。逆锋运笔,笔管向前右倾倒,行笔时锋尖逆势推进,使笔锋散开,笔触中产生飞白(中国画中一种枯笔露白的线条),这种点、线具有苍劲生辣的笔趣,可运于树干、山石的勾勒、皴擦中。顺锋运笔与逆锋相反,采用拖笔运行,画出的线条轻快流畅、灵秀活泼,勾云、画水常用此法。 中国画家十分重视运笔方法,积累了丰富的经验。山水画大师黄宾虹先生总结了前人经验,提出“五笔”之说,“五笔”即“平、圆、留、重、变。”所谓“平”,是指运笔时用力平均,起讫分明,笔笔送到,既不柔弱,也不挑剔轻浮,要“如锥画沙”。所谓“圆”,是指行笔转折处要圆而有力,不妄生圭角,要“如折钗股”。所谓“重”,即沉着而有重量,要如“高山坠石”,不能象“风吹落叶”,即古人说的“笔力能扛鼎”的意思。所谓“变”,一是指用笔有变化,或用中锋或用侧锋,要根据表现对象的不同而变化,不能执一。二是指运笔要相互呼应,古人比之为“担夫争道”,对此黄宾虹的解释是:“盖担夫膊能承物,既有其力,即数十担夫相遇于途,或让左,或让右,虽彼此来此往,前趋后继,不致相碰。此用笔之妙契也。”此外,运笔还要注意气势的连贯,前人提出要“意到笔不到”、“笔断意不断”,这些都是重要的经验之谈。


        上述种种笔法,总括起来,无非是为了画线时求得粗、细、直、刚、柔、轻、重的变化,使画家更能为所描绘的对象“传神写照”。所以黄宾虹说,这些笔法“皆非画家凭空杜撰,乃各代画家在写生中,了解物状与性质所得。”种种笔线形式的创造,是画家对大自然的苦心探索,对客观物象的高度概括与提炼的结果,它不仅能表现物象的形与神,而且具有形式美的价值。


        山水画在笔线形式美的要求上,提倡:一要枯而能润(指画出的线条既苍劲又腴润);二要刚柔相济(指笔线形式要达到既不柔弱又不刚直的完美境界);三要有质有韵(指内容与形式的统一)。


        宋代韩纯全《山水纯全集》提出:“用笔有三病:一曰板,二曰刻,三曰结。”“板”是指没有腕力,用笔不灵活,画出的笔线平扁,没有圆浑的立体感;“刻”是说笔划过于显露,甚至妄生圭角,不自然,没有生气;“结”是落笔僵滞,欲行不行,当散不散,笔线不流畅。用笔犯了这三个毛病,就谈不上线条的形式美,作出的画也就不足观了。


        克服用笔毛病的方法:一是要增强腕力,“笔为我使”。练腕力最好的方法是练习书法。中国画家历来有“书画同源”、“书法通于画法”的理论。为了适应山水画笔法多变的需要,真、篆、行、草都应该练一点,才能掌握用笔的种种技巧。二是要顺应自然,不矫揉造作。只有练就了深厚的用笔功力时,才能水到渠成,能得心应手地画出预期的线条,人为的做作只能适得其反。三是在行笔之前,必须“胸有成竹”。古人有“意在笔先”、“笔周意内”的说法,都是指必须想好了再落笔。


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