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        您当前所在的位置:首页 > 民俗 > 礼俗 > 你一定要了解的三个神:财神、门神、灶神

        你一定要了解的三个神:财神、门神、灶神

        来源:本站 | 发表日期:2019-03-11 | 点击数: 418 次

        导读:中国人过春节已有4000多年的历史,在民间,传统意义上的春节从腊月二十三或二十四的祭灶开始,一直到过了元宵节才结束。各地的春节风俗也各不相同,家家都有神明住,宅宅门神和灶神。

        风水大师


        中国人过春节已有4000多年的历史,在民间,传统意义上的春节从腊月二十三或二十四的祭灶开始,一直到过了元宵节才结束。各地的春节风俗也各不相同,家家都有神明住,宅宅也有门神和灶神。

        财神:中国主要供奉的五大财神,其供奉历史不如上面几个悠久,但却是超越的家宅的供奉范围;

        门神:也是源于周代的“祀门”的活动,到明朝,清朝时候定型;

        灶神:魏晋以后,灶神有了姓名,宋元之际,祭灶流传至今。

        财神

        自古以来,人们都向往美满富裕的生活,这种日子和财富有直接关系。华夏诸神里边有一位神职,在百姓心中就尤为重要,那就是财神爷。

        财神爷在中国道教中是主管世间财源的神明,财神爷倾注了中国劳动人民的朴素情感,寄托着安居乐业,大吉大利的美好心愿。原意指道教奉的神仙。

        到了大年初二,还要祭财神。早晨要祭财神像,祭品多用鱼和羊,取“鲜”之意。象征新财神降临,年年发新财。

        有的地方在初五这天要大放鞭炮,烧红蜡烛,摆金元宝,迎接财神降临 。据说这天是财神的生日。

        财神分为文财神和武财神。文财神代表人物有范蠡, 作为帮助越王勾践成功复国的重要谋臣,和西施缠绵悱恻的爱情也是非常著名。武财神代表人物赵公明,是道教神明, 传说是钟馗的老乡,最早见于《搜神记》。

        另一位财神爷不得不提,就是关羽。民间百姓认为关圣帝君的法力万能,各行各业都可保,便开始对关老爷顶礼膜拜、祈福请愿,因此关圣帝的财神爷位置也就坐定了。


        门神

        过春节在家门贴上门神的习俗已经流传了数千年。门神是道教和民间共同信仰的守卫门户的神灵,作为民间信仰的守卫门户的神灵,人们将其神像贴于门上,用以驱邪避鬼、护家宅、保平安、助功利、降吉祥等,是中国民间深受人们欢迎的守护神。 按照传统习俗,每到春节前夕,家家户户便忙碌起来写张贴对联和门神,祈福来年好兆头。

        根据史料记载,周代的时候就已经出现了“祀门”的活动,而且是极为重要的一项典礼。在门神的传说中,神荼和郁垒二神的传说在民间早有流传,《山海经》《风俗通义》《重修纬书集成》《三教源流搜神大全》等典籍都有记载。

        门神分为武门神及文门神,武门神一般贴在大门上,东边为上,贴秦琼像,西边为下,贴尉迟恭的像;文门神是贴在正堂屋及厢房门上的,一般是招财进宝、五子登科之类的彩画。

        随着社会的发展和意识形态的变化,人们对于门神的要求,已不仅是辟邪免灾,还希望从他们那里获得功名利禄等。至此在明代武士门神像上,已常添画“爵、鹿、蝠、喜、宝、马、瓶、鞍,皆取美名,以迎祥址。以后更有取消门神的祛邪义务,专事祈福的,于是中国民间形成天官、状元、福禄寿星、和合、财神等为门神的风气。



        灶神

        在中原地区如河南、河北、山东、山西等地,每年腊月二十三会“祭灶”。这天人们就将灶王爷的画像请下来焚化掉,送灶王上天言好事,然后在年三十的子时贴上新的灶王像,以表示将灶王爷从新请回家中,下界保平安,保佑家里新一年的安康。

        春节历史上,家家供奉的诸多神主当中,不起眼的灶神却被称为一家之主,灶神为上古帝王。

        据历史记载,灶神的原形正是中国三皇五帝时期的帝王,三皇五帝,是中国历史的开天帝王,所以在供奉的诸神中,地位最高。

        民以食为天,在古代农耕文明的社会中,温饱问题可谓是第一大事,正所谓“王者以民为天,而民以食为天”,而灶王,正是掌管民间烟火的神主,地位相当重要。

        灶王爷来到人间,住在每家每户,处理着“有的吃、不用为吃愁、吃完不生病且健康”等种种的不起眼但极为重要的问题,钱财乃身外之物,烟火才是人间根本,所以被民间誉为一家之主。


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