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        相声中的“贯口”指的是什么?

        来源:网络 | 发表日期:2019-03-11 | 点击数: 438 次

        导读:学贯口就两要点:嘴干净,词儿熟。词儿熟只能建立在苦背的基础上,拿到本子在手里,首先找韵律节奏(例如报菜名的“蒸羊羔、蒸熊掌、蒸鹿尾儿”是明显的断句气口儿),按自己的习惯画好停顿点,就可以开始反复念了。

        风水大师






        1.贯口活,有一个或几个大段的贯口,大致有罗列型和叙述型两种,罗列型如报菜名、地理图、洋药方、开粥厂等等,主要是韵律美;叙述型各有不同,夸住宅是状景、白事会是叙事、戏魔是讲故事、八扇屏是书套子,都不一样,但是和罗列型是截然不同的,要有叙述的感觉,纯背诵就没味儿了。

            2.非贯口活中的贯口,不好掌握,可以拿典例逐个来说。
        《文章会》,田立禾先生讲座里说,康圣人这一段,是在说话,不是在背诵古文。是说而不是背,很难掌握。这是田先生学艺之时,张寿臣先生强调的,也正是寿爷高明的地方。
        《打牌论》,和文章会一样,也要进人物,更难了。赢钱的怎么说话,输钱的怎么说话,大娘二婶怎么说话,都不一样,并且还要自己给自己翻包袱。
        《卖布头》,卖布头的吆喝,也是贯口,逗哏的气口,捧哏的垫字,是极其有讲究的,千万别当成柳活使,买嗓子,那就不对了~说明白比唱明白要强的。。。
            3.小贯口,除了用来卖派要尖儿之外,主要作用是为后边的包袱做铺垫,老秀才说的“诸葛亮和屎壳郎”就是这样的用法,再举两例:
        “久仰大名,如雷贯耳,皓月当空,名驰宇宙,晃动乾坤。久想拜会尊严,怎奈终不得暇,今日一见真乃是——(乙:三生有幸)也不怎么样~”
        “我哥哥要练一套六合枪,何为六合。。。您的感冒刚好可别重复了。。。气不长出面不更色(乙:废话,根本没练!)”这个地方,感冒如果改成非典,有一个小呲牙,后边的包袱就挡了。

        这类包袱,李伯祥和姜宝林用的很多,可以多听听二位的节目体会体会。另外,王凤山的快板《三只鸡》,也是贯口给包袱铺垫的典型教材。






        学贯口就两要点:嘴干净,词儿熟。词儿熟只能建立在苦背的基础上,拿到本子在手里,首先找韵律节奏(例如报菜名的“蒸羊羔、蒸熊掌、蒸鹿尾儿”是明显的断句气口儿),按自己的习惯画好停顿点,就可以开始反复念了。(这有个技巧,如果觉着自己的断气或者开口儿不明显,可以加个“有”字儿)。一开始就要大段整段的念,最多分两块差不多长短的来。尽量不要自己为是的分成几部分分开练,那样练绝对练劈了。等念上个10来遍,就可以开始往下趟着背了。初学常见的毛病是唾沫多,嘴里不自觉的出口水,拿手纸蹭着也要让嘴里保持干燥,趁着干劲儿抓紧念抓紧念,这时候念,一是能让自己有紧张感,二是确实得心应手一些,不至于总秃噜,开口就能爽快干净。

        其次是换气,有人不清楚自己的换气气口长短,有人天生气短上不了长句。只能自己琢磨着怎么学会偷换气(就是边念边换气),也没什么诀窍,而且人人不同。等两样儿都齐了,就剩下怎么圆润了。贯口读多了谁都会吃栗子,就看怎么抓裉节儿。精神打足十二分,裉节儿上踏踏实实的平过去,就八九不离十了。

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