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        丁西林:幽默中的节制与优雅

        来源:本站 | 发表日期:2019-03-14 | 点击数: 273 次

        导读:丁西林认为喜剧是一种理性的感受,必须经过思考,必须有味。他不喜欢夸张,他认为喜剧的笑不同于闹剧的哄堂、捧腹,而应是“会心的微笑”。所以我们看到的丁西林的喜剧,人物不多,也没有大的矛盾,但是语言讲究,有鲜明的层次和节奏,呈现出一种有节制的幽默感。

        风水大师李计忠


         丁西林是个非常有意思的人物。他原名丁燮林,出生于江苏泰兴黄桥镇,是位著名的物理学家。1910年考入上海南洋公学,毕业后又考入英国伯明翰大学攻读物理学,获理科硕士。回国后,受蔡元培校长聘请,进入北京大学任物理学教授,后多次被选为物理系主任。




        就是这位标准的理科生,由于自幼喜爱文艺,留学英国期间,阅读了大量欧洲的戏剧、小说。关于这段经历,他是这么说的,“早年我在上海读书,学的是物理,后来就到英国留学。业余时间看英文小说、戏剧。开始看小说不大看得懂,看戏比较容易懂。所以我是从看英文剧本开始对戏剧发生兴趣的。回国后,因几个搞科学的朋友编了一种综合性的杂志,也想登剧本。他们知道我喜欢戏剧,就怂恿我写,写了几个就出了名。我就这样走上了戏剧创作的道路。”


        丁西林的处女作问世于1923年的独幕剧《一只马蜂》。“一只马蜂”只是剧尾处一句俏皮机智的回话,用做剧目名,别出心裁中透露出含蓄有味的幽默用意。这只“马蜂”一“飞”出,就引来话剧界极大的关注,脍炙人口,广泛上演。丁西林共发表过十部剧作,其中七部是独幕剧。




        丁西林是一个独特的存在。现代文学研究者钱理群说,“丁西林在二十年代,以至整个中国话剧史上,都是一个独特的存在。中国现代话剧是以悲剧为主体的,他是为数不多的喜剧作家之一;中国现代话剧的主要代表作大多是多幕剧,而他却执著于独幕剧创作的艺术实验……他出现在中国现代话剧的初期,可是从起笔就达到了高水准,表现出一种艺术上的成熟。”他被称为“中国现代第一位喜剧大师”“独幕剧圣手”,可这一切却只是他的“业余爱好”,他的主业一直是物理学。

        英国作家华波尔认为,“在那些爱思索的人看来,世界是部喜剧;在那些重感情的人看来,世界是部悲剧。”


        爱思索,可能更容易参悟这个世界的本质,重感情则更容易感知这个世界的不幸。也许,正是由于学习物理学,丁西林的思维更偏重于理性的思考与分析。据说四十年代有一群年轻人去赴丁西林先生的茶会,他们一路上猜想丁先生家的客厅有多大,是否能容得下他们这十来个好动的客人。当他们按照门牌号找过去,这位戏剧界大人物竟生活在一个“陈列的尽是仪器的大实验室”里。而出现在眼前的丁先生,也不是他们想象中身形修长、风趣幽默的样子,恰恰相反,丁先生有些矮胖的身材,一派严肃的神态,实实在在的冷静学者。




        丁西林认为喜剧是一种理性的感受,必须经过思考,必须有味。他不喜欢夸张,他认为喜剧的笑不同于闹剧的哄堂、捧腹,而应是“会心的微笑”。所以我们看到的丁西林的喜剧,人物不多,也没有大的矛盾,但是语言讲究,有鲜明的层次和节奏,呈现出一种有节制的幽默感。比如《一只马蜂》中的吉先生,行为举止非常类似西洋绅士,他穿着“极自然的服装”,批评着“极不自然的社会”,他精心“操纵”着一场欲语还休的心意确认,时刻不会让自己因失礼而尴尬。不难看出这种彬彬有礼、温文尔雅的节制感,丁西林是欣赏的。


        “五四”时期的作家,大多着眼于社会、历史的重大背景和重大问题,突出改造国民性,宣传新思想。但是丁西林更关注的是日常,在日常的租房、婚恋等细枝末节里,他以冷静超然的眼光,审视、发掘生活中喜剧的因子,赋予生活喜剧的灵魂。他改编自凌叔华小说《醉酒》的独幕剧,在一段生活的小插曲里,展现了一对受新文化影响的夫妻对生命、爱情、婚姻的独到看法,对话颇有哲学的意境。剧中人物妙语迭出,今天听来依旧不老套。比如:


        “我想一个人在世界上,要有了爱,方才可以说是生在世上。如果没有爱,只可以说是活在世上”


        “中国的女人,只要结婚,不管爱不爱的。这本来也是对的,因为婚姻是一个社会的制度,社会制度,都是为那一般活在世上的人设的,不是为那少数生在世上的人设的”


        “一个女人,如果完全不吃醋,那就和一个男人不喝酒是一样的,一定是枯燥无味得很。不过酒喝多了是要吐的,吃醋吃到要吐的程度,就没有趣味了”   


        看丁西林的喜剧让人感受到某种智慧的达观,某种中国式的和谐。他并不热衷大舞台,也不刻意追求作品的社会教化作用,他更关注世态人情的合理性,在合理性中又表达出温情的微讽。他的微讽不会让人焦虑,也不致令人抗拒。他的物理学的头脑、他的研究型的思维方式、他冷静细致的分析笔法,给他的艺术思维活动注入了从容、理性、睿智的美感。我想,也许这与丁西林温厚平和的人生态度有关,在他的作品里,的确更多地呈现出东方人那种温柔敦厚的基调,就像《瞎了一只眼》里共同对前来探望的朋友圆谎的那对夫妻,在另类的“扒马褂”过程中,诙谐含蓄地传递出丈夫对太太的“维护”,笑过之后,心是暖的。


        有人说,“丁西林喜剧的灵魂,不在嘲讽,不在抨击,而在其持续不断地、确认着人与人之间某种神圣的联系。任何人与人之间,亲密、自然、健康的联系,不仅是愉快的,也是神圣的”。


        在今天这个喧嚣的世界里,回响着很多宏大的声音,而这小小的、微讽的、细腻而又节制的优雅,依然那样动人,我想那是我们需要的,并且是渴望的。

         

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