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        古人的坐姿养生

        来源:网络 | 发表日期:2019-04-30 | 点击数: 247 次

        导读:坐,首先是一种礼,然后是一种仪;先有了礼节之致,才有了仪态之美。古代的礼仪融汇在举手投足的每件小事中,正所谓“礼者何也,即事之治”。除了礼仪讲究,坐还与健康息息相关。坐得不规矩,惹病上身;坐得合适,可起到养生保健的作用。

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          每种坐姿都有讲究

          坐,首先是一种礼,然后是一种仪;先有了礼节之致,才有了仪态之美。古代的礼仪融汇在举手投足的每件小事中,正所谓“礼者何也,即事之治”。除了礼仪讲究,坐还与健康息息相关。坐得不规矩,惹病上身;坐得合适,可起到养生保健的作用。



          平坐。汉代以前,古人大多采用平坐,即以膝居地,小腿平置于地,臀部贴于脚后跟,就像跪坐一样(图1)。不管是在地板上,还是在床上,都采用这种坐法。平坐又叫正坐、安坐等,坐时身体挺直,眼睛平视,是最体面、权威的坐法。


          在古代,虽然长幼尊卑都是平坐,但是身体的一些细微变化体现出地位之别。平坐时,头微低,注视对面尊者的膝盖,叫恭坐,一般是下级对上级的坐姿;低头,目光不超出身边数尺远,为肃坐,是晚辈对长辈的坐姿;头完全低下来,甚至连手肘都下垂,叫卑坐,是仆人对主人的坐姿。可见,古人通过正身端坐、“坐如钟”等身体语言来传递自己的威严和尊贵。


          垂足坐。到了汉末,兴起“垂足坐”(图2)。这种坐法的倡导者是东汉皇帝刘宏。因皇帝喜坐胡床,于是这种坐姿便流行开来。胡床类似现在的马札小凳,因从西域胡人引入而得名。由于胡床使用舒适、方便,在中原地区得到流传,替代了当时人们席地而坐的习惯方式,逐渐将跪改化为坐。


          跪坐。五代时期,传统的“跪坐”和新潮的“椅上坐”并行流传。南唐画家顾闳中的人物长卷《韩熙载夜宴图》上,便出现了这两种坐法。古人坐姿从此实现了现代化。


          修持坐法。即儒、释、道各家修行时采用的坐姿,多采用盘坐(图3)。因为此坐姿最安稳、不易疲劳、“摄持手足,心亦不散”。盘坐又叫“跏趺坐”。跏趺,是形容交结足背放于左右大腿之上的状态。

          曲膝盘足是我们与生俱来的能力,胎儿在母体内就是这种姿势。腰腿越柔软,屈膝盘足的能力就越强,生命力也就越旺盛。盘坐时,肢体有七个要领,又称为“七支坐法”,其中最关键的是脊柱要正、身形要松、心意归一、颐养身心。



          不同人群的黄金坐法

          不管是平坐、胡坐还是盘坐,都具备“两正一直”的特点。两正是指身正、头正;一直是说脊柱要直。下面就来谈谈不同人群怎么坐,如何把这些特点融入到日常坐姿中。


          学生一族。一拳和一尺,是学生一族的黄金坐法。阅读时,稍稍拿起书,书距桌面呈一拳仰角,眼与书面保持一尺的距离。写字时,身体坐直,书本放平,眼距书本一尺,胸离桌边一拳。


          电脑一族。坐下后,大小腿成直角,大腿与躯干成直角,上臂与前臂成直角,眼睛与电脑屏幕保持平行视角。这个坐姿可以防止鼠标手,又能防止脊柱过度疲劳。


          休闲一族。“以硬代软”是平时看电视、聊天时的黄金坐法。所谓以硬代软就是用硬凳子取代软沙发。因为软沙发没有支撑力,会使整个髋部陷进去,长时间会导致肌肉关节过度疲劳,腰胯酸痛,这和睡软床腰痛是一个道理。


          不过,不管多规矩的坐法,坐久了总会疲劳。所以,坐、立、行等姿态交叉轮换,避免一个姿势太久,才是健康养生的基本原则。



          坐中暗含养生功夫

          要说坐的“功夫”,那就不光是一个讲究外在姿态正确与否的问题了,重要的是掌握三个技巧,才可以实现坐着养生。


          1. 凫浴。是汉代《引书》中记载的导引法。凫(fu),指水鸟。做法:两手在身后交叉,掌心相对,两臂尽量向身体后方伸展,然后手臂上下震动,模仿水鸟抖动羽翼的动作(图4)。震动手臂时要轻盈,做30次左右,然后再分别向左、右后方转头,活动颈椎。凫浴是典型的反序运动,即与日常姿势相反的锻炼,可以有效调整身体平衡,舒缓疲劳。


          2. 交股。股是大腿的意思,这也是《引书》中的导引法。做法:坐在凳子上,两腿放松,右小腿横向抬起,把右脚踝放在左大腿上,就像单盘腿一样;两只手自然扶在右膝盖和右脚踝上(图5),同时向下轻轻按压右膝,节奏要轻缓匀速,按压20~30次,之后换腿进行。交股可使腿部各个关节都得到伸拉,因此对髋、膝关节有着特殊的保健作用。


          3.撮谷道。谷道就是肛门,古人把肛门称为“五谷残渣的泄道”。撮谷道的具体做法如下:坐在凳子上,身体放松,上体后仰,深吸气,小腹用力内收,同时提肛,感受如同把会阴部缩回腹部中一样的力量;然后缓缓呼吸,小腹放松,会阴部放松。撮谷道对于改善性功能、男女生殖系统和肛周健康都非常有益。而且,撮谷道时采用深呼吸,有利于全身的气血循环。


          其次,古人还很讲究养生坐功,通过变换坐姿,动静结合,从而达到调养身心的目的。如宋代“二十四节气导引术”、“钟离八段锦”、“十二段锦”等功法,都是以坐势为主要特点,把多种坐法融为一体,并且加入导引、吐纳、按摩等方法,相当于一种动态的坐功,长期习练,具有很好的养生保健价值。


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