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        中国历史上的文明古都:楼兰

        来源: | 发表日期:2019-05-21 | 点击数: 218 次

        导读:早在2100多年前就已见诸于中国史书的古楼兰王国,曾是丝绸之路上中国、波斯、印度、叙利亚和罗马帝国之间的中转贸易站。在当时的世界,它是世界上最开放、最繁华的“大都市”之一。然而,公元500年左右,它却几乎在一夜之间神秘消失了,众多楼兰遗民也一同“失踪”。目前发现的楼兰古城遗址位于今天新疆巴音郭楞蒙古族自治州若羌县北境,散布在罗布泊西岸的雅丹地貌之中,已经被黄沙掩盖大半。这个丝绸之路上的美丽“都市”为什么会突然消失得无影无踪呢??

        著名风水大师


        早在2100多年前就已见诸于中国史书的古楼兰王国,曾是丝绸之路上中国、波斯、印度、叙利亚和罗马帝国之间的中转贸易站。在当时的世界,它是世界上最开放、最繁华的“大都市”之一。然而,公元500年左右,它却几乎在一夜之间神秘消失了,众多楼兰遗民也一同“失踪”。目前发现的楼兰古城遗址位于今天新疆巴音郭楞蒙古族自治州若羌县北境,散布在罗布泊西岸的雅丹地貌之中,已经被黄沙掩盖大半。这个丝绸之路上的美丽“都市”为什么会突然消失得无影无踪呢?




        战争瘟疫说。一些专家推测,可能是战争直接导致了楼兰古国的消亡。他们认为,楼兰是被丁零(我国古代北方一支庞大的游牧民族,曾协助汉朝灭匈奴,是突厥、回纥的祖先)所灭,或者是被北方的匈奴所灭。而有些专家认为,给楼兰人最后一击的是一场大瘟疫“热窝子病”,这是一种可怕的急性传染病。考古学家在楼兰附近曾发现过一些群葬坑,里面男女老少的尸体层层叠叠。幸免于难的楼兰人选择了逃亡,盲目的人群最后也被沙漠吞没。楼兰国彻底消失了!




        气候恶化说。近年来,人们在研究中国西部地质变迁的过程中,发觉气候与水源的变化才是造成楼兰衰落和最后消亡的主要原因。4世纪以来,塔里木盆地气候趋于于旱,气候变化引起地理环境的变化,面对连年的干早,古楼兰人被迫大批迁移。




        中国古书《水经注》也记载,东汉以后,由于塔里木河中游的注滨河改道,导致楼兰严重缺水。敦煌的索勒率兵1000人来到楼兰,又召集部善、焉耆、龟兹三国兵士3000人,不分昼夜横断注滨河,引水进入楼兰,暂时缓解了楼兰缺水的困境。在那之后,楼兰古城最终还是因断水而被废弃了。加上当时楼兰社会政治的巨变、丝绸古道的变更,也共同成为了楼兰废弃的导因。376年左右,前凉退出楼兰后,楼兰由于内乱和外敌入侵衰落下来之后中原政权的西域长史机构撤走,使得楼兰失去了政治意义。4世纪后,丝绸之路上原本经过楼兰的一段被高昌所取代。楼兰一线沿途缺乏水草,多风沙还要经受匈奴的侵扰,动荡不稳,随着高昌局势的稳定,高昌逐渐成为西域的门户,使楼兰丧失了中西交通中转站的地位,于是“路断城空”。


        楼兰古城遗址西北距新疆库尔勒市350千米,西南距若羌县城330千米。整个遗址散布在罗布泊西岸的雅丹地貌群中,几乎全部为流沙所掩埋。占地面积12万平方米,接近正方形,边长约330米。

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